Monday, January 27, 2020
LOreal Global Marketing Strategy LOreal is a great example of how global branding strategy can be used to generate new growth opportunities when all other companies were not going great guns. In the late 90s and early 2000s when the Asian and Latin American economies were shaky and doing poorly, and numerous international brands struggled, LOreal surged ahead. How did it happen? The answer lies in their beautifully framed mission statement as it elaborates their understanding of the marketability of their product and the need of marketing it globally: at LORÃâ°AL; we believe that everyone aspires to beauty. Our mission is to help men and women around the world realize that aspiration, and express their individual personalities to the full. This is what gives meaning and value to our business, and to the working lives of our employees. We are proud of our work. (Source: LOreal website, www. loreal.com) 1 In 2005, the $18.89 billion LOreal group was the most successful cosmetics brand. According to the business week survey 2004 LOreal was ranked 49th. LOreal marketed beauty products e.g. Makeup, perfume, and skincare and hair products to both women and men in approximately 150 countries. The LOreal group reported its 19th consecutive year of double digit growth in December 2005. Since 1989, LOreals sales had grown at a compounded annual rate of 12% to 1.7 billion. Analyzing the kind of growth story it has written an analyst has rightly described it as the United Nations of beauty .the kind of global presence LOreal has it can only be compared to the United Nations. LOreals global branding strategy thats doing wonders has been actively spearheaded by Owen Jones himself. Lindsey Owen Jones has been the CEO of LOreal for nearly two decades and a chairman now, and under his leadership LOreal has really fine tuned its global branding strategy. Interestingly some press reports tell us that he has been seen roaming around streets in foreign markets to understand the new and existing trends. And without any doubts his interesting work style seems to work wonders. The branding strategy of LOreal has such an impact that LOreal seems to be the only global leader in every segment of the cosmetics industry, right positioning of its products seems to be the key .whatever its trying to sell the French elegance or street smartness of America; is getting good response throughout the world .and LOreal has been able to reach its consumers across the national and cultural boundaries. Owen Jones says: We have this great strategy back in the head office of how we are going to do it worldwide. But when you go out and look at what is happening, is there a big gap between your projections and the reality of what you see and hear? It is so important to have a world vision because otherwise decentralized consumer goods companies with many brands can fracture into as many little parts if somebody isnt pulling it back the other way the whole time with a central vision. This really explains why he prefers roaming in the streets for his strategy making rather than sitting in the boardroom. Having said all that its quiet evident that the global branding strategy of LOreal has paid huge dividends to the company overall. In order to understand this splendid growth story we need to see how exactly LOreal applied their strategy to the countries that were entirely distinct as far as the lifestyle, spending pattern and culture is concerned. LOreal was started in France, has a good brand value in the united states of America, is reaping good dividends from India and has a remarkable presence in Japan. These are different complex societies with different needs, so how exactly LOreal managed to be equally successful in all these places? This question needs some fact finding to be done on the basis of country specific products and strategies adopted by the cosmetics conglomerate. Thats what exactly we will try doing in the next section of this case study. In India 4 billion 7.5 ml sachets are sold every year and thats a staggering 66% of total shampoo consumption in India. Most of the urban Indian women (96%) use shampoo, however only 46% use foundation. For hair care a huge 74% population of Indian women still rely on home remedies, 42% use henna and 94% use hair oil, as far as the LOreals sale per person in India is concerned is just 10 cents compared to 28 Euros per person in France. In India skin lightening creams (fairness creams) constitute more than 50% of skincare market people seem to be crazy for getting for getting fairer. (Source: LOreal, Nielsen) These facts are self explanatory about the nature of Indian market and its clearly stating that the strategy used in USA or any other European countries is not going to work in India. USA is a mature market as far as cosmetics consumption is concerned India is an emerging economy with most of the population below 35 years of age and a huge aspiring middle class. The cosmetics market is growing approximately at an annual rate of 16% in India, still a long way to go. The youth in urban centers is very concerned about the image but the larger section is still off the fashion map. Interestingly even after the success story of corporate India , apparently its still a country that is very much community oriented. The great Indian middle class is aspiring but still has the community driven cultural values intact. LOreal has taken this fact very much into consideration while preparing the marketing strategy for India. A very good example would be the launch of garnier fructis shampoo in India. The concept was to rely on idea rather than relying on advertising a brand. The idea of getting five times stronger hair was the central point that created the hype, through word of mouth or network marketing. Initially it was positioned as product for young and teenagers, once the product was established in the market it tried to change or rather increase the target base by shifting gears. In a recent advertisement of garnier hair color a daughter is shown advising her mother to try the garnier product and explaining the benefits. Again it relies on the concept of idea getting spread by word of mouth to another customer segment. This is the best example of marketing in a closed community driven society. There is one more remarkable thing about this entire campaign the catch line take care. It shifts the focus from the product to the core value of Indian society caring about others and the entire advertisement becomes more of a good advice rather than publicity. China is the worlds most populated country in the world and that makes it very clear that it has the potential of being the biggest consumer market. These days Chinese women are spending on an average 10 to 15% of their income on cosmetics products, an urban Chinese lady would use 2.2 cosmetics products on an average every morning. Evidently most of them want to be fashionable and the LOreal punch line if you want to be fashionable, just choose Maybelline, really seems to work. Masses are made to believe that this is something that represents America and it ought to be trendy. Maybelline is the product line for the masses and LOreal really uses the tendency of masses to look towards the USA thats why the Maybelline products are displayed against the backdrop of shiny skyline of New York City Chinese women prefer skincare and beauty products. According to a research by LOreal in china women are concerned about the radiance of their skin and prefer skin nourishing lotions that protect their skin from skin-drying winters. Unlike us customers most Chinese women like skin whiteners rather than tanning products. Its a sign of beauty for Chinese women. Also, the texture of Chinese hair is thicker and more course than typical US Caucasian hair. This requires different product, and really a different skill set to effectively sell and get these products moving in China. LOreal has dedicated research facilities for these and other issues, and followed up with more innovations to suit the needs and preferences of Chinese consumers.ÃâÃ There is one more very interesting fact about Chinese cosmetics industry; Chinese women are very concerned about the ingesting of lipsticks. This is the most interesting food attitude about Chinese women. Now following its global strategy LOreal even took this into consideration and developed lipsticks containing vitamins; as soon as this was told to the women they were more comfortable in using the product. European countries are mostly developed, here LOreal has the liberty of publicizing the brand value rather than focusing on pricing, the benefit to LOreal in these markets is that it is already well established and the brand is well known so it can concentrate on grabbing the attention of individualistic feminist women. Pricing is not a concern in these markets so LOreal can afford to have punch lines like-I am worth it because these punch lines justify the high pricing of the products and fulfill the feeling of exclusivity of high end clientele. Now lets take another example from the European and us markets, LOreal brands in these markets are quiet well established. LOreal products have been used there for few generations now; once young consumer of the LOreal brand has started aging and the same street smart products could not be positioned to them, they have started becoming the mature citizens; now their priorities have changed. A recent market report suggests that the new target segment in the cosmetics industry is 40 plus women who once used the teenage cosmetics products. The thrust is on anti aging products because it not only adds the new customer base but retains the once teenage customer also. Customer from the baby boom generation reaches the retirement age and tries to maintain healthy and youthful look and finds out that their favorite cosmetics brand is still making products for them. LOreal capitalized on their desire to look youthful and started marketing it anti aging products, it has signed sixty year-old D iane Keaton to represent the Age Perfect Pro-Calcium skin care line. Also LOreal has signed Scarlett Johansson, Penelope Cruz, Eva Longoria and BeyoncÃ © Knowles to promote specific cosmetics lines according to the age groups. Now this tells us how LOreal used the desire of customers to position its products. The French conglomerate believes that only two different cultures as far as fashion is concerned, are dominant, represented by two flagship brands LOreal Paris and Maybelline new York. LOreal has been projected as a French origin with elegance, high end presentation and obviously high pricing. Whereas the Maybelline product line represents the street smart American babe who is looking for the value of the money. America seems to be the growth engine of the world, in the cosmetics industry as well. LOreal has understood this and they made a strategy based on the trends in the USA and thats how Maybelline came into existence. Maybelline currently is the second largest brand in share of unit sales of cosmetics products and number one in makeup brands. It claims to be totally consistent with todays confident woman. Maybelline products targets three customer segments; youngster (16 to 25), office lady (26-35) and career women (35 plus). Marketing mix for Maybelline line of products consists of two main strategies: foreign consumer cultural positioning and symbolic New York City imagery that women can relate to everywhere. Maybelline promotion include different way of grabbing attention including promotional coupons, online advertising, sponsorship of fashion shows, signing fashion icons as spokesperson of the product ,free make up consultancy and providing scholarships etc. we can see as American cosmetic market is a mature market so LOreal tries to rely on mature marketing tactics. In the early 20th century, even American society was not very much open to makeup and skin care products .people thought that only sinful women should wear makeup but eventually with the economic independence that the American women gained; makeup and cosmetics started coming into mainstream. Cosmetics apparently became the symbol of new self belief that the American women was beaming with; and remember even Maybelline claims to be totally consistent with todays women, there are several other punch lines like maybe shes born with it, maybe its Maybelline, all the punch lines keep the self confidence of women in centre as if its not the make up but its the attitude that has to be worn. Thats why women of every nationality and culture started identifying herself with the product and this became the symbol of the 21st century woman. We always say that the world has turned into a small village. Production houses are becoming more and more global. But same cant be said about the consumers as they would still be using the products because of their own reasons. Someone in the USA can use a product just to feel exclusive however the same product could be used in the UK for health reasons. So the companies need to identify the demands of a specific market to effectively satisfy the demand while planning the globalised marketing strategy. Therefore the challenge posed to the companies is whether they should just keep changing their strategy according to the culture or can they consider every customer as a global customer with all common needs. Thats the irony we are supposed to work with these days; on one hand companies are on a global platform more than any other point of time in history however they have to adapt to the mindset and lifestyle of the customer as well. The mindset and the lifestyle of the customer are heavily impacted by the culture. Culture is defined by different norms, values, interactions, language and others personal components shared by groups of people across the world. It is a social phenomenon which defines peoples interests, thoughts and other behaviors they may exhibit in the social life. From one country to another, humans have evolved and developed different types of expressions, beliefs and behavior which can be difficult to understand for someone who does not belong to the same culture. culture is the way how the members of a particular group interact with each other on the sharing of the available means, now that determines what is going to be the need for a particular product in that society, that also decides whether a particular advertising strategy will work or not and how exactly that will be interpreted by the target customers. In different markets consumer requirements and consumer behavior may vary. Cultural aspects deeply impact the consumer behavior; the impact may be direct or indirect. The culture distinction creates the consumer behavior difference, as it can be noticed between the Asian and European continent where the culture and the behaviors are very different. Being a global organization LOreal certainly needs to understand the cultural differences and position its products accordingly otherwise the results may be far more different than they are at this moment. The thrust has to be on hitting the right customer with the right product. This can be possible only if one has a deep knowledge of local culture and beliefs. A very interesting example would be of lipstick use in china; according to a research only 3% women use lipstick for makeup. The reason that was supposed to be behind this low percentage of lipstick use is even weirder; women in china have concerns about ingesting lipstick. LOreal conducted a survey to see whether this is just an age old saying or it holds some truth, based on the findings it came up with a lipstick that had vitamins in it and in turn the demand for LOreal vitamin lipsticks increased. Another example could be real handy; in India long hair is considered necessary for a woman to be considered beautiful. LOreal considered this fact while launching its shampoo product in India and it focused on publicizing the fact that using the garnier fructis shampoo helps in getting long and strong hair. This strategy made the product very popular in India. In china or India people like to have fair complexion. In Asia, women take special care of their skin. People want radiant skins and lotions that can nourish their skin against sun .whereas in the United States people would rather buy tanning cream. On basis of this knowledge LOreal can position their whitening creams in India and the interesting part is the way the advertisements could be interpreted .the way the advertisements for the fairness creams are made in Asian countries these can be interpreted as racial advertisements in the USA but in Asian countries that seems to be quiet usual. Now thats where the knowledge of the culture and beliefs comes handy and helps avoiding unnecessary problems. From a business point of view, companies have to adapt themselves to the culture of each country in which they want to have business in.ÃâÃ for example, Because of the differences of culture between countries, companies need to adjust their products and services according to the local demands. This will help them to create and develop a brand image across the globe that is based on a large number of globally recognized products. Based on these examples we can say that LOreal was able to be successful in these markets because it adapted to ground realities of the particular market yet it followed a standardized strategy. If we study the marketing mix of Maybelline, it has two pronged strategy -one for the foreign markets another is the global street-smart image of the American chic. The global street smart image of New York chick can be admired in almost all the urban centers, be it India, china or Brazil. However there has to be a right mix of local flavor as well. The most important part of the LOreals strategic plan is opportunity hunting or the marketing of their products worldwide. From the initial days it already started catering to the demands of women worldwide. In order to do that efficiently they were expected to be well aware of the diversities of women across the globe .once they knew the diversities their job was to come up with different line of products suitable to the women from all parts of the world .Innovation has been the keyword for LOreal and this was made possible through constant research and development over the years .the group has already covered most parts of the world and still striving to cover more. In order to do so LOreal group has to keep respecting other peoples identity ,ideas and culture .LOreal has to keep valuing different cultures and nationalities to get their brand value up and it seems that they have been doing it really well. The success story can continue further because even today products of LOreal touches the cultural values instilled in potential customers mind .LOreal just doesnt sell the product it makes the customer buy the idea of dreaming big but still remaining rooted to the core cultural values .it has carefully devised its global marketing strategy and customized it to the local needs, and thats the reason people from Africa to Europe and America to Australia are using the LOreal products. LOreal has been doing pretty well in terms of global presence and monetary growth. The mission today is to understand consumers needs and expectations so as to meet them as effectively as possible along with widening the scope of global line of products.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Dear Brother Allen,Hope this letter finds you in good stead and full of happiness. Here I'm also feeling happy, as today I have the scope to write to you. Everything is going fine here at our Institute, which is in fact going from strength to strength with the steady enrolment of new volunteers.News apart, I'm feeling excited to share certain reflections of my present day thought which you wanted to know. Presently I'm preparing a discourse aimed to bolster the spirit of the modern youth and I would like to share some excerpts from it.The recent train of thought in me has provided a new light on the topic of perfection. It has been for quite some time, I was receiving various hints from the nature and the living beings about the genesis of perfection. Later, one day when I was trying to join those loose threads of thought, I suddenly stumbled upon a revelation Ã¢â¬â which, in fact has brought in a new bend in my vision! No, it hasn't brought me on any crossroad Ã¢â¬â on the con trary, it has elevated me to a plane, from where I'm seeing more things with more clarity.The idea, of which I'm excited about, can be expressed in a single phrase and I'm doing that for you now: Ã¢â¬Å"Education is the manifestation of perfection, which is already in humansÃ¢â¬ !This is the goldmine of ideas that I've struck just a few days back. It perfectly conforms with the philosophy of Vedanta Ã¢â¬â even more, it consolidates the very base of it Ã¢â¬â that is, Monism.Let me try to explain in detail. You must be knowing that Vedanta philosophy is essentially based on the idea that it is one unique that has been working all around.. This premise brings down this fact that the Almighty is not something or someone existing in somewhere, but it is He who is in us, exists equally everywhere. All around us and beyond is attuned with His existence. Now when I was contemplating with the idea of perfection, it suddenly came to my mind that if He is in us, and if He is the epitom e of perfection, then perfection is supposed to be inherent in us as well! This idea made me so excited and I took to the narrow road down through our garden and settled myself beneath our big banyan tree to meditate in the joy of revelation.Brother James, the halo of this idea is still exerting its influence in me; as now I am gradually coming to the terms of its fuller possibilities; which, in essence is a limitless magic of the Divine Almighty.Imagine what would happen, if each individual perceives this truth that they are already endowed with the power to be perfect in their acts and deeds, and all they have to do is to tap that infinite reservoir of power! Then this would bring in a collective spiritual revolution across the globe; where all men and women would be busy in discovering the inner power of their own and all will be on the equal plane with a soothing sense of equality! Being convinced of equality, all would only be eager to extend their helping hands to others.This act of recognizing the inner reservoir of perfection has to have innumerable other implications as well, let alone the possibility of a collective and organized journey towards salvation. It would shorten the cycle of rebirth if there is any; because it would connect to the soul, the spirit, or the atman in Vedic parlance; which would in itself be an act of rising over the body and mind!The application of this new found philosophy, as I'm feeling from within, would actually set everyone in motion; much like the gases in the stars which emit the light till it attains the nirvana or moksha or salvation, Ã you name it! This would only spell a relentless development but without any competition; it would be a confident march where everyone will arise, awake and will stop not till the goal is reached.I can feel the excitement in me already, which speaks of the power of this idea. It was only days back I wrote in the pages of my intended discourse for the youth of the world: Ã¢â¬Å"What I want is the muscles of iron and nerves of steel, of which the thunderbolt is made..Ã¢â¬ Ã and now I have to add lines to it, mentioning clearly that Ã¢â¬Å"you have it all in you, the iron, the steel, the thunderbolt. All you need is to believe in this fact and act on this. The rest will take care of it.Ã¢â¬ Brother Allen, I sincerely pray that this idea evokes a new spirit in you too, that you become aware of your potential and utilize it to the fullest and bask in the glory of salvation after blooming like a star or a flower in this universe.Best Wishes,Swami Vivekananda,Ramkrishna Mission,Kolkata, India.01/01/1889Works ConsultedSayings of Swami Vivekananda. 3 Nov. 2007http://mysticsaint.blogspot.com/2005/06/sayings-of-swami-vivekananda.htmlQuotes of Swami Vivekananda. 3 Nov. 2007. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://thinkexist.com/quotes/swami_vivekananda/Biography of Swami Vivekananda. 3 Nov. 2007. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www. writespirit.net/authors/swami_vivekananda/biography-swami-Ã Ã Ã vivekananda/Swami Vivekananda. http://www.sriramakrishna.org/vvksay.htm
Friday, January 10, 2020
Introduction With our technology today we can substitute some firecrackers while celebrating New Years Eve. The aim of this project was to help the students be more curious about the situation surrounding them. This report is hoping that the government can make a wise decision about this problem to help reduce pollutions. Ã This can make change for a better world and a good place for our sons and grandsons. Hoping this research can help every question of the students. Finally this research was conduct to make a contribution for the next generations. Acknowledgement IÃ¢â¬â¢ am Joris Magno would like to thank the persons who help me to finish this research. I would like to express my gratitude to all the students who answered my surveyÃ¢â¬â¢s the possibility to complete this research. IÃ¢â¬â¢am in deeply indebted to my teachers who help me to give some ideas about my topic and some advice that they give, my English teacher who have shared her wisdom with us to make a research paper. IÃ¢â¬â¢m thankful to my mother that she has been supporting me from my projects and research, to giving me help from any financial support, and my inspirations to finish up this work. And all of that IÃ¢â¬â¢ am thankful to our Dear GOD Who always there to help in every time. The Problem Its Background Firecracker is one of the no. 1 issues of our country that firecracker should be banned, According to the (DOH) Department of Health that one of the most significant cause of death in our country while celebrating New Years eve is accidents on using firecrackers, Wild Fire cause by a firecrackers, and firework related injuries and many more. In that case we are facing a very big problem about firecrackers and this is why IÃ¢â¬â¢ am willing to have a research with this kind of topic. Did you know that the our country is one of the most pollutant City in celebrating New year thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why our government was alarm about this study. Many bad effects can harm our body that is caused by a firecracker and we are one of those citizens affect most, because we live here in a urban city (NCR) and me too is alarm that this bad effects can kill us. According to my research that every students of MPNAG was aware of the bad effect of fireworks in our health and 96 over 100 was agree that firecracker should be banned in our country. Last January 1, 2013 across our country about 412 revelers were injured, down by 17 percent compared to the same period last year, according to the DoH. There were at least 18 cases of indiscriminate firing reported by the DoH, according to Valte. Importance of the Problem It has already become boring how year after year we have been harping about the fires, deaths and injuries caused by illegal explosions of poorly manufactured firecrackers. And how all of these can be avoided if authorities had been stricter in enforcing the law on firecrackers. This study is very important to answer all the questions of every individual who is curious about banning of firecrackers. It is said that our country is one of the top 20 countries that celebrating New Years eve who uses up Firecrackers and that is why our DoH was conducting a Ã¢â¬Å"Iwas PaputokÃ¢â¬ program that can help to reduce up the smog after the eve. Our students in MPNAG was also agree that firecrackers should be banned already because it can harm people and can cause a large damage of infrastructure that is cause by a wild fire. The firecracker ban, effective since 1966, has been observed more on the breach. Welcoming the New Year with a big bang is too ingrained a tradition to change. In fact, a quiet New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve is unthinkable. I doubt if the Department of HealthÃ¢â¬â¢s call for Congress to legislate a full ban will fly. This research is a benefit for the citizens of our country, this includes young people and for adults, I made done this research to inform and persuade the people to stop using firecracker to lessen the pollutants we have done. Definition of Terms Firecracker Ã¢â¬â A firecracker (also known as a cracker, noise maker, banger or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal. They have fuses, and are wrapped in a heavy paper casing to contain the explosive compound. Firecrackers along with fireworks, originated in China. Fireworks- are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and culture, and religious purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics) is a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are also regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with flames and sparks of many colors, typically red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. The earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to 7th century China, where they were invented. The fireworks were used to accompany many festivities. It is a part of the culture of China and had its origin there; eventually it spread to other cultures and societies. Important events and festivities such as the Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) and the Mid-Autumn Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world. Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion (skyrocket) or be shot into the air by a mortar (aerial shell). The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, often pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in war. Such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. The aerial shell is the backbone of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial aerial display. A smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States. Ground fireworks, although less popular than aerial ones, create a stunning exhibition. These types of fireworks can produce various shapes, such as simple rotating c Yuletide season is fast approaching and firecrackers are gradually being sold in the market. Yearly, injuries linked to fireworks are almost inevitable. To minimize the fireworks related casualties, the Department of Health-Center for Health Development XII held a Press Conference for the IWAS PAPUTOK campaign on November 27, 2012 at Sun City Suites, General Santos City. It was attended by people coming from the media, Department of Trade and Industry Scope and Delimitation of the Study The scope of this study focused on issues and problems about the banning of firecracker in our country. This research was limit and conducted only at the school campus to let the students be curious about this topic. The respondents of this study were the fourth year students from the different section and classes of the school. The instrument used in this study itÃ¢â¬â¢s the survey questions distributed, wherein Co students with different status in life are asked to answer certain questions which about the community problem facing every year. This study also hopes to waken up the students from different problems surrounding them. I hope that it can answer every question of the students of MPNAG who are very curious about it. Related Literature and Study Firecracker ban Manila, Philippines Ã¢â¬â IT has already become boring how year after year we have been harping about the fires, deaths and injuries caused by illegal explosions of poorly manufactured firecrackers. And how all of these can be avoided if authorities had been stricter in enforcing the law on firecrackers. Senator Panfilo Lacson was correct when he said: Ã¢â¬Å"First, the regulatory power of government with regard to pyrotechnics, if at all, is not clear or at least not effectively disseminated to the public. Second, threats and warnings are taken for granted simply because enforcement as a follow-through is lacking if not absent. The firecracker ban, effective since 1966, has been observed more on the breach. Welcoming the New Year with a big bang is too ingrained a tradition to change. In fact, a quiet New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve is unthinkable. I doubt if the Department of HealthÃ¢â¬â¢s call for Congress to legislate a full ban will fly. Nevertheless, I agree with Senator Gringo Honasan, chair of the Senate committee on public order and dangerous drugs, when he stated recently that his committee will soon hold a public hearing to review existing measures or ordinances on firecrackers and pyrotechnics and determine if there is a need to pass a new law that will regulate their use during New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Day celebrations. On the other hand, the recommendation of DirectorGeneral Alan Purisima, the new Philippine National Police Chief, on the issue is bold and worthy of consideration. He wants powerful firecrackers to be classified as bombs or improvised explosive devices (IED). Individual fireworks containing not more than 0.2 grams of gunpowder or explosive material are allowed by law. More than that may be classified as IEDs or bombs. The Purisima suggestion will in effect tag the manufacturer or possessor of any powerful explosive as a Ã¢â¬Å"terroristÃ¢â¬Å" and will be jailed without benefit of bail. Crackdown vs. illegal firecrackers launched Philippines Ã¢â¬â Director General Alan Purisima, chief of the Philippine National Police (PNP), ordered yesterday all police commanders nationwide to raid factories of illegally-manufactured firecrackers and likewise confiscates those being sold in the streets. In effect, Pursima said he is turning the PNP as the teeth of the Department of Health which has been aggressively pushing to lessen the number of firecracker-related injuries during the traditional New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s revelry. Ã¢â¬Å"We are very concerned of the use of firecrackers and other pyrotechnic materials and that is why we are joining forces with the Department of Health in reducing firecracker-related injuries,Ã¢â¬ said Purisima in a press briefing at Camp Crame in Quezon City. Ã¢â¬Å"While the DOH will take the task of massive information drive, we in the PNP will focus on the enforcement of laws that will help in reducing to the lowest level the casualty figure,Ã¢â¬ he added. Last year, a total of 378 persons were injured while two people were killed based on firecracker-related incidents based on the data of the PNP. Yesterday, the PNP Chief led the inspection of factories and stalls in Bulacan, which is considered as the Mecca of firecrackers and pyrotechnic materi als in the country. (Aaron B. Recuenco) Firecracker-related injuries lower: DOH By GENALYN D. KABILING MADEL SABATER-NAMIT Manila, Philippines Ã¢â¬â Despite the lower number of firecracker-related injuries brought about by the aggressive information campaign by the Department of Health, MalacaÃ ±ang is not about to support a total ban on firecrackers in the country. Ã¢â¬Å"Whether or not legislation will be proposed will be dependent on the assessment of the situation and preparations by the concerned agencies for this year,Ã¢â¬Å" Deputy Presidential Spokeswoman Abigail Valte said. At least 412 revelers were injured across the country, down by 17 percent compared to the same period last year, according to the DoH. Valte also noted that police have arrested 215 persons in connection with the sale and distribution of illegal firecrackers in Metro Manila. Also closed down were 67 stalls and 35 ambulant vendors of banned firecrackers, Valte said. Aquino earlier sought for stiffer penalties against manufacturers and users of prohibited firecrackers particularly those that damage public property. Authorities were also asked to strictly inspect stores selling firecrackers to make sure they comply with their business permits. Meanwhile, MalacaÃ ±ang issued a stern warning against those who are guilty of indiscriminate firing in welcoming the New Year. There were at least 18 cases of indiscriminate firing reported by the DoH, according to Valte. Although the number is 56 percent lower compared to last year, Valte said the government will continue to step up efforts against those who are guilty of indiscriminate firing. Valte said there were nine civilians arrested by the Philippine National Police (PNP) in Metro Manila Monday night and are Ã¢â¬Å"currently under processÃ¢â¬Å" as part of its efforts to discourage indiscriminate firing. Police personnel had their guns sealed before the Christmas holidays to ensure that no one among their ranks will indiscriminately fire their guns in welcoming the New Year. Elsewhere, a four-year-old boy was killed on New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve after he was shot by a 40-year-old man in Mandaluyong City, a police official disclosed. Senior Supt. Armando Bolalin, chief of the Mandaluyong City Police Station, identiÃ¯ ¬ ed the victim as Ranjelo Nimer, a resident of Block 26, Welfareville Compound, Barangay Addition Hills, Mandaluyong City. Bolalin, during an interview, disclosed that that victim was taken to the Mandaluyong City Medical Center at 9:10 p.m. Monday but was pronounced deadon-arrival by attending doctors at 9:40 p.m., after he sustained four bullet wounds to the head, at his lower left shoulder, and two in the left side of his body. In Malolos, Bulacan, a threeyear-old boy was rushed to a hospital after being hit by a stray bullet during the New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s celebration in the province. Liz Mungcal, head of the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management OfÃ¯ ¬ ce (PDRRMO), in her report to Bulacan Governor Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado, said the victim was a resident of Barangay Bagong Nayon, Baliwag. In Davao City, police director Senior Superintendent Ronald dela Rosa reported that not a single case of Ã¯ ¬ recracker-related injuries was recorded in the city. Ã¢â¬Å"We checked all the hospitals, health centers and even the smallest clinics in the entire Davao City and not even one person was admitted for firecracker injuries,Ã¢â¬Å" said dela Rosa. Davao City has long banned the use of dangerous firecrackers and pyrotechnic materials. Strict enforcement has also resulted in the arrest of 106 vendors and users. In Quezon City, some policemen were caught feasting on the seized firecrackers after presenting them the media to discourage their use for the New Year revelry. Director General Alan Purisima, chief of the Philippine National Police (PNP), ordered the QC Police District and the National Capital Region Police Office (NCRPO) to submit the names of all the officers involved in taking the seized firecrackers. Ã¢â¬Å"This is embarrassing for the PNP. These officers have no discipline, they should face the consequences of their actions,Ã¢â¬Å" said Purisima. Purisima was reacting to a video footage captured by the ABS-CBN wherein a number of policemen started taking various firecrackers and pyrotechnic materials that were presented to the media. (With reports from Francis Wakefield, Aaron Recuenco and Freddie Velez) Government starts anti-firecracker campaign MANILA, Philippines Ã¢â¬â In is still a month before the New Year revelry to greet 2012, but the government has already started its anti-firecracker campaign to reduce firecracker-related injuries, largely caused by indiscriminate use of firecrackers and pyrotechnics. The campaign will be a collaborative efforts by various agencies of government. The Department of Health (DoH) launched Aksyon: Paputok Injury ReductionÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (APIR) or Ã¢â¬Å"Give Me Five,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ in which it would not ask people to stop using firecrackers or show images of injuries, but instead will show a hand with five fingers, representing DoH tips for the holidays Ã¢â¬â participate in community fireworks display, celebrate a safe family holiday, use alternative noise-makers, join merry-making activities, and reflect on lessons of past year to guide New Year. In support of the DoH, the Department of the Interior and Local Government will tap local government units (LGUs) to designate areas for fireworks display. The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), reports that 17 Metro LGUs signed a resolution to set up a common fireworks area in every barangay. The Department of Trade and Industry will inspect firework manufacturers, and will ban harmful firecrackers such as piccolo, super lolo, pla pla, judas belt and og. The Bureau of Customs is preventing the influx and sale of illegally imported or smuggling firecracker products. Some P400,000 worth of confiscated firecrackers were destroyed at the Philippine Coast Guard-Cebu compound. Following tradition, many Filipinos will light up firecrackers to greet the New Year. The government, however, advise them to be cautious and seek prompt medical treatment for firecracker injuries. Prevention is still better than cure. Firecracker ban Manila, Philippines Ã¢â¬â The Muntinlupa City government has reminded residents that selling firecrackers is illegal in the city. The policy is based on the existing Executive Order 14 issued by Mayor Aldrin San Pedro last year, which strictly enforces the firecracker ban in Muntinlupa. San Pedro said the move aims to protect the public from the dangers of firecrackers, which can result to injuries and deaths. (Jonathan Hicap) Ã¢â¬ËIwas paputokÃ¢â¬â¢ Manila, Philippines Ã¢â¬â National Capital Region Police (NCRPO) Alan Purisima ordered yesterday Metro Manila district police chiefs to intensify their campaign against illegal firecrackers and improvised PVC cannons as part of the joint monitoring center campaign they share with the Department of Health (DOH) dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Oplan Iwas PaputokÃ¢â¬ to lower firecracker-related injuries and deaths. The campaign also aims to check indiscriminate firing of guns. (Jean Fernando) Zero casualties: Firecracker ban works wonders in Davao and Olongapo (Updated 2:35 p.m. Dec. 28) Ã¢â¬â Did you just buy a jeepneyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of fireworks, noise makers, and pyrotechnics? Before you light up the fuse on one of those spanking new Ã¢â¬Å"Gangnam Bombs,Ã¢â¬ you may need to check your local city laws first. You may need to pay a hefty fine, or spend a night behind bars for the crime of being a firecracker bug. Take Olongapo City, for example, which has had a firecracker ban on its street s since 2008. The city is prepared to slap a P5,000 fine and imprisonment on violators, and keep its clean record of zero reported injuries caused by fireworks. OlongapoÃ¢â¬â¢s city public affairs chief Mike Pusing told GMA News Online that people in their community are very much aware of the prohibition. As the Department of Health on Wednesday floated the idea for a nationwide fireworks ban, given the rising number of firework injuries, local government units with firecracker bans have been relentless with their policies to greet the coming year without the usual explosive fanfare, or the missing digits and limbs that usually come with the explosions. Olongapo isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the first city to have this ban, however. They only followed the lead of Davao City, whose local council was the first to pass an ordinance against firecrackers back in 2002. Davao CityÃ¢â¬â¢s health officer, Josephine Villafuerte, told GMA News Online that the local government has already reminded residents about the ban on firecrackers even before Christmas. As a result of the innovative restriction, the city has greeted each of the past three New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s celebrations without any fireworks-related injuries. Villafuerte pointed out that her city strictly implements the firecracker ban, noting the arrest of at least 32 people this past Christmas Eve for violating the ordinance. Ã¢â¬Å"Sanayan lang,Ã¢â¬ said Villafuerte on the absence of firecrackers in the New Year revelry, adding that people can still be happy and noisy even without fireworks. Meanwhile, Muntinlupa City followed suit and passed an ordinance banning firecrackers in 2010. Public Order and Safety Office staff Manny Surel said that city officials and the police previously met to discuss the firecracker ban, but declined to say more. The municipality of Pateros said in place of the prohibition of the sale, distribution and storage of firecrackers in the town, it heavily promotes alternative ways of greeting the new year with the use of toy horns and banging on pots an d pans. We observe Oplan Iwas Paputok Manila, Philippines Ã¢â¬â The Department of Health (DOH) launched its annual OPLAN IWAS PAPUTOK early this month. This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign focuses on children aged 6 to 10 years old. Statistics reveal that in 2011, the firecracker mishap belonged to this age group. DOH Secretary Dr. Enrique T. Ona has been visiting schools to advise children not to use or play with any firecracker/fireworks or pick any used firecracker in order to avoid injuries. In the event of fireworks-related injuries, bring the victim to the nearest health care facility so that immediate medical treatment can be administered to prevent tetanus, he says. The Philippine National Police (PNP) has been conducting fireworks training seminars for both producers and users of firecrackers. The Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) has launched Ã¢â¬Å"Oplan PaalalaÃ¢â¬ to advise the public to strictly observe safety measures to prevent fires in their households. All these measures, however, can be effective only with the cooperation of the general public, especially parents and caregivers. Let us resolve to have a better and safer 2013 by making an effort to prevent danger from firecracker/fireworks. We can promote community fireworks displays handled by experts and located in safe areas, use alternative noise-makers like car horns, cans, pots and pans, radio music, etc. to welcome the new year, or join street parties, concerts, and games. We congratulate the Department of Health led by Hon. Secretary Dr. Enrique T. Ona, the Philippine National Police led by Chief Director General Alan LM Purisima and their Officers and Staff, and wish them all the best and success in all their endeavors. CONGRATULATIONS AND Mabuhay. DOH mulls total firecracker ban Health authorities are planning to push fpr a total ban on firecrackers nationwide. This, after the Dept. of Health had noted the increasing number of firecracker-related injuries in the run up to every New Year revelry. Health Secretary Enrique Ona told newsmen in an interview Thursday he and the DOH team are analyzing the trend in injuries prior to New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s eve. He said if the same number of firecracker-related injuries is established, a radical change will be observed. Ã¢â¬Å"We analyze how effective these [measures to prevent firecracker-related injuries] are and if the case is always the same, maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s time we did something more drastic,Ã¢â¬ Ona said. According to Ona, despite having the objective to raise a ban on firecrackers, especially illegal ones, much consideration must be taken as this ban would also affect manufacturers, sellers and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Ã¢â¬Å"[We should] see how other countries do it [measures] and see the effect of firecracker ban in places in the Philippines like Davao City and Subic that have [already] done a total ban,Ã¢â¬ Ona said. As of Wednesday, there had been 72 victims of firecracker-related injuries, about 40 % of whom were children below age 10. He did not disclose comparative figures from last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-New year celebration. Ona said about half of the victims were onlookers. He added: Ã¢â¬Å"It is a time for celebration, a time to be happy, a time to be with friends, family and loved ones. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not the time to be crying, especially if the injuries obtained by these firecracker victims are severe.Ã¢â¬ Ona also remind the public that the New Year should not only be a happy one but also a safe. Firecracker ban The use of firecrackers, although a traditional part of celebration, has over the years led to many injuries. There have been incidents every year of users being blinded, losing body parts, or suffering other injuries, especially during festivities that customarily involve firecrackers such as Chinese New Year season. Hence, many governments and authoritarians have enacted laws completely banning the sale or use of firecrackers, or banning the use of firecrackers in the street, primarily because of safety issues. * Australia Ã¢â¬â Australia, with the exception of its capital territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory, does not permit the use of fireworks, except by a licensed pyrotechnician. These rules also require a permit from local government, as well as any relevant local bodies such as maritime or aviation authorities (as relevant to the types of fireworks being used) and hospitals, schools, et cetera, within a certain range. * Canada Ã¢â¬â Firecrackers are not authorized under the Explosives Act, thus making importation, possession, transportation, storage or manufacturing illegal in Canada.  Canada banned firecrackers on September 27, 1972 after it came out in the media that two children were killed and three others severely burned when some older children were playing with firecrackers outside their tent. False rumours have been spread that the children inside the tent had actually been smoking and, not wanting to tell their parents, had told them they had been playing with firecrackers. This report is incorrect. One of the surviving burn victims has researched and documented the events of that night and has included some of these details in his autobiography. Fireworks, however are still legal to buy for anyone 18 years of age or over. * Mainland China Ã¢â¬â As of 2008, most urban areas in mainland China permit firecrackers. In the first three days of the traditional New Year, it is a tradition that people compete with each other by playing with firecrackers. However, many urban areas banned them in the 1990s. For example, they were banned in BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s urban districts from 1993 to 2005. In 2004, 37 people were killed in a stampede when four million people gathered for a rumored Lantern Festival firework display in nearby Miyun. Since the ban was lifted, the firecracker barrage has been tremendous. An unusual[clarification needed] feature is that many residents in major cities look down on street-level fireworks from their tower blocks. Bans are rare in rural areas. * Hong Kong Ã¢â¬â Fireworks are banned for security reasons Ã¢â¬â some speculate a connection between firework use and the 1967 Leftist Riot. However, the government would stage a fireworks display in Victoria Harbour on the second day of the Chinese New Year. Similar displays are also held in many other cities in and outside China. * Indonesia Ã¢â¬â Firecrackers and fireworks are forbidden in public during the Chinese New Year, especially in areas with significant non-Chinese population to avoid conflic t between the two. However, there were some exceptions. The usage of firecrackers is legal in some metropolitan areas such as Jakarta and Medan, where the degree of racial and cultural tolerance is higher. * Italy Ã¢â¬â Firecrackers are legal and can be bought without a licence. * Malaysia Ã¢â¬â firecrackers are banned for similar reasons as in Singapore. However, many Malaysians smuggle them from Thailand. * Norway Ã¢â¬â The government of Norway decided to ban rockets shortly after 2009 started. Other types of fireworks are still allowed. * Philippines Ã¢â¬â Fireworks and firecrackers are widely available throughout the Philippines, but are banned in Olongapo City (since 2008) and Davao City (since 2001). * Republic of Ireland Ã¢â¬â Fireworks and firecrackers are not permitted in the Republic of Ireland however many people smuggle them from Northern Ireland where they are legal. They are most common around Halloween. * Singapore Ã¢â¬â a partial ban on firecrackers was imposed in March 1970 after a fire killed six people and injured 68. This was extended to a total ban in August 1972, after an explosion that killed two people and an attack on two police officers attempting to stop a group from letting off firecrackers in February 1972. However, in 2003, the government allowed firecrackers to be set off during the festive season. At the Chinese New Year light-up in Chinatown, at the stroke of midnight on the first day of the Lunar New Year, firecrackers are set off under controlled conditions by the Singapore Tourism Board. Other occasions where firecrackers are allowed to be set off are determined by the tourism board or other government organizations. However, their sale is not allowed. * Sweden Ã¢â¬â Only rocket type fireworks are allowed in Sweden. The ban of fire crackers was done by the EU Parliament and Swedish government 1 December 2001 * Taiwan Ã¢â¬â Beginning 2008, firecrackers are banned in urban areas, but still allowed in rural areas. * United Kingdom Ã¢â¬â In 1997, firecrackers became illegal but most other consumer fireworks are legal. * United States Ã¢â¬â In 2007, New York City lifted its decade-old ban on firecrackers, allowing a display of 300,000 firecrackers to be set off in ChinatownÃ¢â¬â¢s Chatham Square. Under the supervision of the fire and police departments, Los Angeles regularly lights firecrackers every New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Eve, mostly at temples and the shrines of benevolent associations. The San Francisco Chinese New Year Parade, the largest outside China, is accompanied by numerous firecrackers, both officially sanctioned and illicit. CHAPTER 2 Method of Study The instrument I used for my research is the survey questions and some interviews about my topic. Ã This topic is interesting for every student and according to them 74 out of 100 students their impression in using firecracker is Dangerous because it can cause damage to our body and health. All of the students was aware to the negative effects of firecracker, and 96 out 100 students agree to the government that firecracker should be banned. About 74 out of 100 students are not using firecracker anymore, because they have an alternative for it. The Ã¢â¬Å"TorototÃ¢â¬ a flute that makes avery loud sound and it is more affordable, toxic free than firecracker. Treatment of Data This study can help the government to know what are the impressions of the students about banning of firecracker in our country. Ã In fact, firecrackers can lead to significant casualties if people donÃ¢â¬â¢t use it appropriately. In recent years, firecrackers are banned in some states in America. There are a total of 11 states that ban all types of firecrackers while some states only allow few types of firecrackers. Most leniently states such as Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida still allow all types of firecrackers ( Essoyan; Los Angeles Time ). The administration of some states has refused to allow the setting off of firecrackers during Chinese New Year celebration because these state governments believe that these explosives are too dangerous. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why our government was alarm about this news CHAPTER 3 Presentation and interpretation of Data This graph tells that the impression of many of the students is Dangerous. But almost of the students are using up firecracker. This was taken up about last-last year survey about the banning of firecracker in big cities. CHAPTER 4 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation The main thrust of the study was to inform the students and to be curious about the problems facing our community. Specifically, the study answered questions to make the students be not innocent about this problem this can help the community be aware of it. FINDINGS 1. Level of Students who are using firecracker Majority (81.9333) of the students got the highest rating scale of 80-89 which was rated Very High. Only the rating scale of 50-59 (far below from the passing percentage) are not using firecracker. 2. Students aware to the bad effects of firecracker Almost all of the students have the rating scale of 90 and above, who are aware of its harmful effects. 3. Impression of the students toward using firecracker Based on the survey that all of our respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s impression toward it is very dangerous because it can affect our body to have illness, having a accidents. The causes for these accidents is misbehavior in using fireworks, it can cause damage to infrastructure. CONCLUSION For being a student I conclude that firecrackers should be banned in the Philippines including Fireworks, this was proven according to the Government of Davao and Olongapo. Because they already done this thing and observe a peaceful New year. RECOMMENDATION For my viewpoint of this problem, I think that we should start using up firecrackers to lessen more pollutant in the air and even accidents we can prevent of this two. Firecrackers is one of the most significant problem of our country and even our planet are debating oneself to banned this problem and I think that our government start to work up and make a wise decision. For the students I want to advice them that they should participate in every problem who are facing this country. I supposed that if firecracker has been banned the earth can leave longer and even the young people we might help in the next generation. Bibliography Ã¢â¬Å"Fire CrackersÃ¢â¬ StudyMode.com. 10 1999. 10 1999 . http://www.tempo.com.ph/2013/01/firecracker-ban-2/#.UQfLkmedqxM http://www.tempo.com.ph/2012/12/crackdown-vs-illegal-firecrackers-launched/#.UQfMFmedqxM http://www.tempo.com.ph/2013/01/firecracker-related-injuries-lower-doh/#.UQfMiGedqxM hthttp://www.tempo.com.ph/2011/12/firecracker-ban/#.UQfMqGedqxM http://www.tempo.com.ph/2011/12/government-starts-anti-firecracker-campaign/#.UQfMs2edqxM http://www.tempo.com.ph/2011/12/iwas-paputok/#.UQfNKWedqxM http://www.tempo.com.ph/2012/12/we-observe-oplan-iwas-paputok/#.UQfN4GedqxM
Thursday, January 2, 2020
The Importance of Positive Leadership and Its Effects on Organizational Behvaior - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2158 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/09/13 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Master of Science in Administration (MSA) Program Course Title: Submitted to: Submitted by: Email: Course Location:Online Submission Date: Research Project Title: THE IMPORTANCE OF POSITIVE LEADERSHIP AND ITS EFFECTS ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORSHIP: I certify that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance I receive in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed in this paper. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, or works, either quoted directly or paraphrased. I also certify that this paper was prepared by me specifically for this course. StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Signature: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Comments: MSA610 Literature Review Introduction John Quincy Adams once said Ã¢â¬Å"if your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leaderÃ¢â¬ . Positive leadership is a critical area for an organization and its behavior. A good leader or leadership team can take a mediocre organization and transform it into something great. They help improve the way of life for some organizations. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Importance of Positive Leadership and Its Effects on Organizational Behvaior" essay for you Create order There are three important aspects to consider when discussing good leadership and its effects on organizational behavior: the importance of leadership, the elements of a great leader, and the effects of good leadership within an organization. The first area, the importance of leadership defines what role a leader may play within an organization. Next, there are several fundamentals that a leader must possess or demonstrate in order to be considered a good leader. This is discussed in the second sub-topic. Lastly, the effects that a good leader can have on a organization can be long-lasting and widespread, depending on the size of the organization. Examples of two outcomes are provided. Presentation of the Literature The Importance of Leadership Leadership, for our purposes, is Ã¢â¬Å"operant behavior of one person that effects a change in the context of the operant behavior of one or more other persons and thereby changes or maintains the other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ operant behavior (Effective Leadership in superior-subordinate dyads: theory and data, 2005). To practice leadership requires that a person focus on their leadership skills, their knowledge, and their attitude. Leadership skills are the abilities that someone has developed through their training and education perhaps. Leadership knowledge can be described as what one knows about the practice of leadership. Leadership attitude comes from who a person is, in total the everything that makes someone who they are in their beliefs, emotions and values. Leaders provide a vision and help employees turn the vision into reality. Good leaders believe in open, honest communication and care about the welfare of the employees. According to John Kumle, good leaders Ã¢â¬Å"believe that people are important, and come first before things, goals and visionsÃ¢â¬ (Kumle Kelly, 2006). Leaders have a great deal of impact on organizational behavior, and the organization as a whole. One study defined Organizational Citizenship Behavior as a type of discretionary job performance in which employees go beyond formal job descriptions and engage in helping behaviors aimed at individuals or the overall organization. Employees are not typically rewarded for engaging in OCB, nor are they punished (Melschnake Cochran, 1993). This study found that leadership was a better predictor than job satisfaction when it came to OCB. These results suggested that job satisfaction is not a direct cause or antecedent of either dimension of OCB, but that it may be correlated with OCB only because both job satisfaction and OCB are common effects of leadership (Melschnake Cochran, 1993). In yet another study, it was determined that leadership is just one facet of the development of professionals in the workplace. Robert Quinn, a professor of management and organizations at the University of Michigan says that Ã¢â¬Å"many people have a one-dimensional paradigm of what it looks like to organize and lead. But, if you have awareness whatsoever, you know that this is insufficient, and if you follow that one system fanatically, it will break down. A positive organizational approach is really a matter of being able to integrate the competing demands that make up an organizationÃ¢â¬ (Pace, 2010). According to this same study, individuals can either function as a Ã¢â¬Å"positiveÃ¢â¬ energizer, or a Ã¢â¬Å"negativeÃ¢â¬ energizer. Positive energizers leave others feeling inspired, motivated, and full of vitality, while negative energizers tend to deplete the strength and enthusiasm of their peers (Pace, 2010). Based on this, strong interpersonal relationships can be formed, and the efficiency of work being done can all be affected by leaders who exude positive energy. The Elements of a Great Leader An effective leader can be determined using a number of elements. Top companies tend to make key leadership talent accountable for their own development and strengthening the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership and its culture (Gandossy Guarnieri, 2008). Areas such as how well a leader can deliver results through others, establish a Ã¢â¬Å"can-doÃ¢â¬ attitude, and how they go about achieving these results are key elements. Employment engagement is another important element of a good leader. Feedback from the leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ teams on their competency, style, commitment to the company and the team are important. If work climate issues surface, leaders are expected to address them with action plans, log their process throughout the year, and utilize best practices for building commitment (Gandossy Guarnieri, 2008). As mentioned in the previous section, leadership can be characterized by skills, knowledge and attitude. However, effective leaders need to be vulnerable and open to forgiveness, in order to build a good relationship with their employees. Leaders must be able to forgive themselves. This may be the hardest task of all, because all of us are haunted by the mistakes we have made. Our ability to lead is directly proportional to our ability to forgive ourselves and risk failure againÃ¢â¬ (Grant, 2008). The ability of a leader to forgive themselves eliminates the feelings of anger, hurt, shame, and guilt and releases burdens that have created the incapacity to love others. When leaders realize this, their hearts move away from hardness caused by resentment. The leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s behavi or changes to accepting otherÃ¢â¬â¢s imperfections when they accept their own imperfections (Grant, 2008). Character is also a key source of leadership power. According to Terry Bacon of Leadership Excellence, being seen as a person of character enhances your capacity to lead and influence others for three reasons: 1) they trust your intentions; 2) they are more confident in your leadership, and 3) they see you as a person worth emulating. Even if they disagree with you, they know you are an honorable advocate (Bacon, 2009). Character is a crucial power source for those who are in a position of responsibility, whether the person is an executive, manager or professional. Bacon also states that leaders who rate highest in character are perceived to be much more effective at building rapport and trust, showing genuine interest in others, supporting and encouraging others, building consensus, being sensitive to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings and needs, having insight into what others value, building close relationships and resolving conflicts and disagreements among others. In any case, leaders with strong character are much more influential with people and organizations (Bacon, 2009). Effects on the Organization When a company has a true commitment to leadership, it becomes integrated with business planning and woven into the culture of the organization (Gandossy Guarnieri, 2008). Leadership by the CEO and their executive team is typically cited as the number one driver of effective corporate citizenship by firms (Morgan, Ryu, Mirvis, 2009). Even though there is no firm agreement on what constitutes Ã¢â¬Å"best practiceÃ¢â¬ by a leader, there are several benefits of putting in place an effective leader or leadership team. These benefits include a heightened credibility of financial reporting, operational benefits such as clarity on roles within the organization, cost reductions from improved coordination, and insight into emerging social, commercial and environmental issues. Benefits like a decreased risk of litigation (by consumer or employee), increased credibility with regulatory agencies and solid contractual agreements also exist (Morgan, Ryu, Mirvis, 2009). An excellent example of an effective leader and the benefits to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior can be taken from Nike. In 2004, Nike formed a committee to monitor activities within their company, called the Corporate Responsibility Leadership Team. This team consists of executive representation from Nike Brand, communications, operations, the general counsel and corporate responsibility. The leadership team aims to integrate policies such as corporate responsibility into the business by setting strategies, monitoring progress towards specific goals and objectives, and by continually reviewing the organizational approach to managing the corporation (Morgan, Ryu, Mirvis, 2009). One success of this team was The Considered line, launched in 2005, and produces less waste, eliminates the use of toxic substances and reduces NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s overall impact on the environment. Nike has over one hundred fifty employees working on this team. Such an approach allows for information flow across boundaries and for the enterprise to conduct a thoroughgoing review of its performance (Morgan, Ryu, Mirvis, 2009). A second example of effective leadership and how it affects organizational behavior is from a Canadian oil company. When a new president was named, he faced a company whose morale was at an all-time low, with employees who were frustrated and unhappy. They had already faced layoffs with the previous president who was trying to build efficiency through headcount reduction, but had not produced the desired results (Joiner, 2009). The new president began to implement new strategies and resulted in a smaller, more focused organization with a Ã¢â¬Å"people strategy. Ã¢â¬ As the months went on, he and his team kept on-going communications going through several strategy implementations, and kept the employees up-to-date on their performance. This presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s participative leadership approach not only led to innovative strategies, it also developed the commitment, trust and alignment necessary to implement them realistically and effectively. As a result, during his first three years as president, annual earnings went from $9 million to $40 million, and cash expenses were reduced by $40 million a year (Joiner, 2009). Because of his leadership strategies, this president helped a once struggling corporation become one of the top retailers in its marketplace. In 2008, a study was performed to determine if there was a difference between social workersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations and perceptions of their supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, and whether or not that difference made an impact on job satisfaction. The study found that as this difference increased, job satisfaction decreased. As part of the study, the researchers determined that leadership implies follower-ship (Organizational leadership and its impact on social workers job satisfaction: a national study, 2008). A constructive relationship between the leader and employee can positively impact the employee regarding productivity, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Organizational leadership and its impact on social workers job satisfaction: a national study, 2008). Summary of the Literature In closing, positive and effective leadership is a must for any organization. An effective leader is an important part of an organization because it has been proven that job satisfaction is related to leadership that an employee is exposed to. Good leaders open the channels of communication, and develop relationships with their employees, resulting in better productivity. There are many elements that an effective leader must possess, but a few include character, knowledge, attitude, and the ability to forgive. A leader must be able to forgive himself in order to be an effective leader, because that allows him to forgive his employees if a mistake is made. Character makes you who are. If a leader has demonstrated character, they are more apt to developing a good reputation within their organization. Finally, recall the example of the oil company president. The more communicating he did with his company, the more effective his new strategies were. By doing this, he increased his companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value significantly. The effects of a good leader within an organization are twofold: the leader becomes respected, and the employees and organization are happier. Research shows that the more impact a leader has an organization, the more successful that organization is. References Bacon, T. (2009, November). Character Power. Leadership Excellence, 26(11), 18. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from ABI/INFORM Global (Document ID: 1906542801). Effective leadership in superior-subordinate dyads: theory and data. (2005). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management. 25(4), 37. Grant,Ã K.. (2008). Imperfect People Leading Imperfect People: Creating Environments Of Forgiveness. 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